Linus Pauling , the only person who has won two undivided Nobel Prizes,1 was born in Portland, Oregon, the son of a pharmacist, Henry H.W. Pauling, and Lucy (Darling) Pauling. He attended Washington High School in Portland but because of a technicality did not receive his diploma until 1962, long after he had received his bachelor’s degree from Oregon State College in 1922, his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology in 1925, and honorary degrees from universities in seven countries.

The American chemist Linus Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize twice. Through his research he clarified much about the structure of the smallest units of matter. His studies on sickle cell anemia (a disease that mainly affects African Americans) helped to create the field of molecular biology. He founded the science of orthomolecular medicine, which is based on the idea that diseases result from chemical imbalances and can be cured by restoring proper levels of chemical substances.

With the help of a National Research Council fellowship in 1925-1926 and a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship in 1926-1927, he studied with three physicists: Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Erwin Schrodinger in Zurich, and Niels Bohr in Copenhagen. From 1927 until 1964, he was a member of the professorial staff of California Institute of Technology, earning a reputation as a gifted teacher – articulate, enthusiastic, with a talent for simplification and a willingness to engage in controversy. For twenty-two of those thirty-seven years, he was chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, as well as director of the Gates and Crellin Laboratories of Chemistry.

With the help of a National Research Council fellowship in 1925-1926 and a Guggenheim Foundation fellowship in 1926-1927, he studied with three physicists: Arnold Sommerfeld in Munich, Erwin Schrodinger in Zurich, and Niels Bohr in Copenhagen. From 1927 until 1964, he was a member of the professorial staff of California Institute of Technology, earning a reputation as a gifted teacher – articulate, enthusiastic, with a talent for simplification and a willingness to engage in controversy. For twenty-two of those thirty-seven years, he was chairman of the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, as well as director of the Gates and Crellin Laboratories of Chemistry.

The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, outlawing all but underground nuclear testing, was signed in July, 1963, and went into effect on October 10, 1963, the same day on which the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that the Peace Prize reserved in the year 1962 was to be awarded to Linus Pauling.


Definitive, mega-dose testing of vitamin C on cancer patients needs to be carried out. The Cameron testing clearly revealed that the addition of ascorbic acid, alone,lengthened life and even eliminated pain in terminally ill patients.

Dr. Pauling, a California scientist, was one of the most honored men of his lifetime. In addition to Otto Warburg (who also did alternate cancer therapy research), Pauling also received two Nobel prizes (Chemistry, in 1954, and Peace in 1962).

For decades this Standford University research scientist had made contributions to chemistry, especially those chemical processes related to life itself. He had helped clarify the nature of DNA and proteins (including hemoglobin and antibodies),and had done most of the work in cracking the riddle of sickle-cell anemia.

But, in April 1966, he became a controversial figure in the medical field—and was roundly criticized because he was not a physician.You will recall that a similar reaction occurred a century earlier, when Louis Pasteur, also a research chemist, began devising ways to improve nutrition and health.

“At every incursion on the domain of medicine,he was looked upon as a chemist . . who was poaching on the preserves of others.”—Rene Vallery-Radot, The Life of Pasteur, 1924.

It all began when Pauling made contact with Irwin Stone, a pioneer researcher into human vitamin C requirements. Stone had discovered that nearly all animals synthesize ascorbic acid (vitamin C) within their bodies, but humans, great apes,and guinea pigs are different—in that they have to obtain their ascorbic acid from the food they eat.

A study of mammals revealed to Stone that they produce and use very large amounts of vitamin C, especially when they are under stress.

Translated into human dimensions (since our bodies are so much larger), we need grams of ascorbic acid, not the 75 milligrams (thousandths of a gram) that the National Academy of Science stipulates as the total amount we need daily.

Although it was true that only milligrams of ascorbic acid were needed to prevent clinical signs of scurvy (a disease marked by fatigue, anemia, and bleeding gums), but Stone discovered that vitamin C did far more than just prevent scurvy!

Ascorbic acid is actually “cell cement”;—it helps hold our bodies together; and, in addition,it enters into a wide variety of physical functions.Researchers have found that vitamin C, in large doses, aids the body in resisting and overcoming many diseases, including the common cold.

In his 1971 book, Vitamin C and the Common Cold, Pauling documented a variety of facts about vitamin C, (as well as some distortions being printed by those opposed to its use). In 1976, he published Vitamin C, the Common Cold, and the Flu with even more facts.

“[Critics] use two sets of logic. Before they are prepared to look at Dr. Pauling’s hypothesis,they demand proof of the most rigorous kind. But when arguing against his views, they refer to evidence of the flimsiest sort for the toxicity of ascorbic acid.”—Abram Hoffer, M.D.,quoted in Pauling, Vitamin C and the Common Cold.

Pauling was asked to journey to Washington,D.C., to meet with officials of the FDA. When he was finally able to schedule the trip, the invitation was withdrawn. A running feud developed which continued for several years.

Pauling cited examples of earlier peoples, including the American Indians who, when ill, drank fluids from ascorbate-containing plants, to treat a variety of ailments.But the problem intensified when Pauling turned his attention to cancer, and began researching the scientific literature in the field. He found that the results of a remarkable amount of research into vitamin C in relation to disease and cancer already existed.

In the 1930s, German physicians began prescribing 1-2 gram doses of vitamin C in the treatment of cancer, with a fair degree of success.Researchers found that cancer patients had“lower than average amounts of vitamin C in their blood plasma and white blood corpuscles” (Richard Passwater, Cancer and Its Nutritional Therapies, 1978).

Epidemiological studies correlated a lack of vitamin C with a high death rate, including a high cancer death rate. In 1948, a study of 577 older residents of San Mateo County, in California, were interviewed. When researchers followed this up eight years later, they found that the death rate for those receiving the highest amount of dietary vitamin C was only 40% that of those with much smaller amounts of the vitamin (ibid.).

W.J. McCormick, M.D., a Canadian physician,found in 1954 that “the degree of malignancy is determined inversely by the degree of connective tissue resistance, which in turn is dependent upon the adequacy of vitamin C intake” (ibid.). Vitamin C does far more than prevent scurvy; it is the cement in connective tissue throughout your body.

Unlike Coley’s toxins, Durovic’s Krebiozen, or Burton’s vaccines, vitamin C was a clear-cut chemical substance, with properties which had been repeatedly researched. Yet a storm of protest deluged Dr. Pauling’s disclosure of these facts.

In 1973, Dr. Morris Shimkin wrote in an NCI publication, Science and Cancer, “There is no diet that prevents cancer in man. Treatment of cancer by diet alone is in the realm of quakery.”

With the help of wealthy friends, Pauling established the Linus Pauling Institute, for research into, and dissemination of, the value of ascorbic acid and related ingredients in the treatment of cancer.Ewan Cameron, M.D., was a physician at the Vale of Leven District General Hospital in Loch Lomondside, Scotland. Beginning in 1971, he teamed up with Pauling and began giving terminal cancer patients high doses of vitamin C.

These were patients who had earlier received surgery, radiation, and hormones; only a few had received cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapy). In each instance, two physicians would certify that the case was hopeless and nothing further could be done.Then the patient was turned over to Dr. Cameron.He immediately began high doses of vitamin C. This was not difficult, since vitamin C has no toxic effects on the body, except that its acidity could injure the teeth or be uncomfortable in the stomach.

Cameron was a researcher in his own right.He was not only a surgeon, but had studied the biochemistry of cancer cells and found that cancer spread by invading healthy normal tissue in its vicinity. He found that, to do this, the cancer cell produced an enzyme, hyaluronidase.This enzyme attacked the intercellular ground cement, the material that holds cells together in tissues. He published his findings in a 1966 book, Hyaluronidase and Cancer.

Then Cameron set to work to find a substance which would strengthen the intercellular cement and thus slow the growth of cancer. He thought it would be a hormone,—but he discovered that it was vitamin C which other researchers had shown was a powerful builder of this cell cement.

Scotland, with a rather high-meat consumption,has a high rate of cancer; and 90% of the cancer patients in his area were sent to Cameron’s hospital, whose surgical unit was under his direction.In addition, his clinical work was supported by Scotland’s Secretary of State, as well as by the Linus Pauling Institute.

The testing by Cameron began in 1971, and Pauling described what happened when vitamin C—with the addition of no other nutrients or life changes—was given to the cancer patients:“Dr. Cameron first noticed that the patients felt well when they received 10 grams a day or more of vitamin C. They developed good appetites,increased energy, got up from the hospital,went home, went back to work and got along much better than with conventional therapy. Patients who were on morphine for pain could be taken off their morphine in five days.”—LinusPauling, quoted in H.L. Newbold, “Design for Living,” interview by Carleton Fredericks,Ph.D., WOR-AM, New York, May 9, 1978.

Although these results were excellent, it was necessary to begin a detailed study of 100 terminally ill cancer patients who were beyond further help by orthodox methods of treatment.

The final results revealed that patients, receiving 10 grams a day of vitamin C, lived, on the average, four times as long after having reached the terminal stage than those who received only the conventional therapy. In addition,the pain was removed, and they felt so much better.

About 16% of Cameron’s cases experienced a dramatically marked increase in survival time. In the control group, the mean average was 50 days;in Cameron’s group, every patient lived more than a year.(Of course, if other nutritional and life changes had been made, the improvement probably could have been much greater. The most complete system of nutrition and cleansing, the Gerson method,requires far wider changes; but, consequently, it has far greater success.)

By the early 1980s, Cameron had over 4,000 cases in his records. He has found that the results are far better when he can work on patients in the early stages of cancer.

“We surmise that the addition of ascorbate to the treatment of patients with cancer at an earlier stage of development might change life expectancy . . from, for example, 5 years to 20 years.”—Linus Pauling and Ewing Cameron,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,October 1976.

The natural killer (NK) cells are the most important cells in the immune system in the battle against cancer, because they attack and destroy abnormal cells. It has been shown that NK cells are active only if they contain relatively large amounts of vitamin C.

Cameron found that patients given 5 grams of vitamin C orally, on 3 consecutive days, experience a doubling in the number of lymphocytes in their bloodstream. The high levels continued for another seven days.A 10-gram dose per day, caused this rate to triple. A dose of 18 grams per day resulted in a fourfold increase.In some cases, Cameron has used 20 or 30 grams a day on patients, by intravenous drip,with remarkable results.

“With the proper use of vitamin C for cancer,we could cut the death rate by 75%. It is probably wise for every cancer patient to receive vitamin C.”—Linus Pauling, quoted in Richard Passwater, Cancer and Its Nutritional Therapies,1978.

Back in the United States, the two researchers were told that their findings could not be accepted until animal research work had been done first. Although this would require years of work,Pauling agreed to it; but, when he applied for grant money, his request was refused.

Five times Pauling, author of more than 400 scientific papers, requested funds; each time to be turned down. The final notation said, “Based on evaluation of scientific merit of this application disapproval must be recommended.”

Since Pauling and Cameron’s initial studies, a number of other physicians elsewhere have begun quietly prescribing megadoses of vitamin C, along with other nutrients in the treatment of cancer.

One was H.L. Newbold, M.D., of New York City.For skin cancers, he uses a combination of about 15 grams of vitamin C a day by mouth, along with vitamin C ointment applied to the surface of the tumor itself, five or six times a day. He does not always have success, but then he focuses primarily on vitamin C; whereas there are a broad number of nutritional, environmental, and lifestyle factors which should also be included.

In treating other kinds of cancer, Newbold increases the dosage as high as he can. He says he can seldom go higher than 50-60 grams a day, when given by mouth. In addition, he gives another 50 grams intravenously. He adds that if he had cancer, he would take at least 50 grams a day intravenously, six days a week, for at least three months; and an equal amount by mouth.

Beginning in December 1977, one patient with a deadly “oat cell” carcinoma of the lung, was placed on 105 grams a day! That is 2,000 times the 60 milligrams recommended daily by the FDA.More than a year later, she was in excellent shape and working hard again.

More recently, Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D., of Victoria, British Columbia, and Dr. Pauling carried out a study of 40 patients with cancer of the breast, ovary, uterus, or cervix. They continuously received large daily doses of ascorbic acid and other vitamins. At the same time, another 61 patients with other kinds of cancer followed the same regimen while 31 patients received no vitamin supplements and served as the control group.

The control group lived an average of 5.7 months. Of the others, 80 percent of the patients with cancer of breast, ovary, cervix, or uterus, had a mean survival time of 122 months while 47 patients,with the other kinds of cancer, lived for an average of 72 months. The length of life for those using vitamin C was 13 to 21 times longer than those not receiving it (Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 5, No. 3).

Before concluding this article, it would be well to summarize the relationship of vitamin C to several vital factors and functions:

Vitamin C stimulates normal cells to increase production of hyaluronidase inhibitor. This combines with the hyaluronidase released by the cancer cells, so it cannot break down normal cell walls,preparatory for invasion.

Vitamin C is an essential co-factor in the synthesis of carnitine by the body. It is well-documented that cancer patients have very low levels of carnitine, needed for energy production.Vitamin C increases the body’s production of interferon, which is a cancer-fighting factor in the body.

Vitamin C helps produce PGE1, also called the prostaglandins, which are needed in lymphocyte function.

Vitamin C is needed by the body so it can place a wrapper of collagen fibers around cancer cells until they can be torn apart and discharged from the system. Without vitamin C, collagen cannot be made; it is the “cell cement” of the body.

Vitamin C protects the body against radiation,rendering it less devastating.Vitamin C is one of the most powerful antioxidant agents, because it both fights free radicals in the body and restores the antioxidant properties of vitamin E.

One danger should be noted: When a person is taking large amounts of vitamin C, his body adjusts to this. But if it is suddenly stopped or heavily decreased, vitamin C deficiency symptoms (scorbuticsymptoms, called the “rebound effect”) can appear. High doses of the vitamin should never be discontinued suddenly.

Here, from the Linus Pauling Institute, is the formula for taking vitamin C:

1 – Large amounts of vitamin C should be taken daily, but in divided doses all through the day.

2 – Begin with 1-2 grams (equivalent to ¼ to ½ teaspoonful) of pure crystalline vitamin C dissolved in juice or water.

3 – Increase the intake by 1 or 2 grams on each subsequent day until a laxative action develops.

At this point, reduce the dose by 1 or 2 grams below this bowel tolerance level and maintain that dose thereafter.

You can never take too much vitamin C!When too much is taken, the body immediately produces a slight, brief diarrhea to discharge it. It is untrue that vitamin C can cause kidney damage.

Crystalline vitamin C can be obtained inexpensively as ascorbic acid. Do not take it in the sodium ascorbate form (reason: For proper cancer avoidance and recovery, sodium intake should be heavily decreased and potassium greatly increased).

Upon request, the Linus Pauling Institute, in Palo Alto, will send out an international list of physicians who may be using intravenous vitamin C as an adjuvant therapy.

Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine.


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